# Topologies on Sets

Definition: Let $X$ be a set. A Topology on $X$ is a collection $\tau$ of subsets of $X$ that satisfies the following properties:1) $X, \emptyset \in \tau$.2) If $\{ U_i : i \in I \}$ is any arbitrary collection of subsets of $X$ such that $U_i \in \tau$ for all $i \in I$ then the union $\displaystyle{\bigcup_{i \in I} U_i \in \tau}$.3)) If $\{ U_1, U_2, ..., U_n \}$ is any finite collection of subsets of $X$ such that $U_i \in \tau$ for all $i \in \{ 1, 2, ..., n \}$ then the intersection $\displaystyle{\bigcap_{i=1}^{n} U_i \in \tau}$.The pair, $(X, \tau)$ is called a Topological Space. |

*Note that (2) states that the union of any ARBITRARY collection of sets in $\tau$ is also contained in $\tau$, while (3) states that the intersection of any FINITE collection of sets in $\tau$ is also contained in $\tau$. In other words, a topological space $(X, \tau)$ is closed under arbitrary unions and under finite intersections.*

It can easily be show that for any set $X$ that $\tau = \{ \emptyset, X \}$ and $\tau = \mathcal P (X)$ (the power set of $X$ which is the collection of all subsets of $X$) are both topologies on $X$. These topologies are given a special name.

Definition: The Trivial Topologies on $X$ are $\tau = \{ \emptyset, X \}$ and $\tau = \mathcal P (X)$. |

We now give an example of a set $X$ and a nontrivial topology $\tau$ on $X$.

Consider the following set:

(1)And the following collection of subsets of $X$:

(2)We now show $\tau$ is a topological space. We see that $\emptyset, X \in \tau$ so (1) is satisfied. We now list all of the unions of sets from $\tau$:

(3)Each of these arbitrary unions is contained in $\tau$ so (2) is satisfied. We now list all of the intersections of sets from $\tau$:

(4)Each of these intersections (which are finite since $X$ is finite) are contained in $\tau$ so (3) is satisfied and hence $\tau$ is a topology on $X$.